John S. Fray & Co.
The "Spofford" Braces
John S. Fray was born in Januarry, 1833 in Camborne, Cornwall, England, and
by the time he was 17 years old (1851) worked there in a Safety Fuse factory.
At some point he emigrated to the United States and, living in Bridgeport,
Connecticut, apparently had established a relationship with Nelson Spofford, an
inventor living in Haverhill, Massachusetts. He established the John S. Fray & Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut
and built an early
reputation and brace building success upon the initial patent of
an inventor from Haverhill, Massachusetts. Spofford’s first patent (he was
awarded at least four more) was for a type of split chuck, often termed a
"clamshell" chuck. Different in that was not composed of separate pieces, the
chuck is really a terminal fork of the frame that pinches the bit when tightened
with a thumb screw. The patent was #25984 granted on November 1, 1859. This
design proved to be rugged and held bits securely. Stanley continued to produce
braces using this design until at least 1942, making it second only to the
Barber's Improved chuck in brace manufacturing longevity. Its major disadvantage was the
impossibility of including a ratchet mechanism with this sort of chuck.
John Fray apparently began manufacturing Spofford braces as early as 1859 in
partnership with a gentleman named Horace Pigg. These early braces are marked,
"Fray & Pigg Manrs / Bridgeport, Conn" and "Spofford’s Pat / Nov 1, 1859". An
example of this brace is shown below. It has a cast iron handle that has the
sweep of the brace cast in its underside (this one is a 7" sweep).
Sometime before 1866 the partner, Pigg, dropped from the company and
subsequent braces are marked only "John S. Fray & Co / Bridgeport, Conn. USA".
The association with Pigg must have continued for some time--although
speculation exists that it was maintained for only a year or two. But too many
braces marked "Fray & Pigg" turn up to think that it was a fleeting partnership.
Indeed, Fray patented a whimble extension to the Spofford brace in 1869 (#89265)
and assigned the patent to himself and Horace Pigg. So the Fray-Pigg
involvement must have continued to at least 1869. The iron Spofford braces marked just by John Fray are identical to the braces
above, even to the sweep number casting in the undersides of the handles.
Spofford’s subsequent patents included an 1880 one for a means of
manufacturing the frame so the danger of breakage during bending was reduced. Two were for
modifications to the chuck and one for a wrist handle.
These are rare braces to find. The fourth patent was for a clumsy ratcheting
mechanism that was probably not produced.
At some point the Fray company began to produce Spofford braces with wooden
handles. The handles were cocobolo or rosewood, with the wrist handles being
strikingly attached with inlet pewter rings to hold the halves of the handles
together. These braces, in
their most lavish nickel-plated form are distinctive and eye-catching. Because
I’d not seen a wooden handled Spofford brace marked with the first patent marking,
I thought that this
handled form probably did not appear until after the expiration of the chuck
patent. Not uncommon, they still command premium prices. The largest size (17"
sweep) is seldom seen. I have a couple of the wood handled Fray Spofford
braces marked with the second Spofford patent, Feb. 23, 1880. This is a rare patent
mark (Pearson, "A"). One example is above.
I recently found a Spofford patent brace with the pewter-bound wood handles
that is marked, by Fray & Pigg. This one has a delicate lignum top
handle that is dished out underneath and has the largest pewter rings that I've
seen on any Fray brace. With the mark, it is a rare item, and may
represent a very early example of a pewter ring brace.
At some point
the Fray company also produced Spofford chuck braces with rosewood wrist
handles, but without the distinctive pewter rings. Several of these have
come my way in the past few months (2004). Nearly all of them are
unmarked, but are distinctly Fray products. One No. 10 whimble brace is
marked and is shown at the left. This style of brace does not need the
pewter retaining rings on the wrist handle because the turned handle is
fashioned in one piece--rather than being split and applied after the forging
and bending of the brace bow. This construction is possible because the
brace frame is constructed in two pieces. The lower section of the shaft
contains the Spofford chuck, the lower bow, and the swelling that holds the
wrist handle in place. The upper part of the shaft is separate, and does
not include the upper swelling to contain the top of the handle. Rather
there is a steel collar to fix the wrist handle in position. This upper
shaft is seated in the top of the lower section, below the wrist handle, and is
pinned in place (the head of the pin can be seen in the photograph). I am
not aware of a patent protecting this style of construction.
feature of this particular whimble brace deserves note. The ferrule at the
bottom of the top handle is stamped, "Fray's Pat. Aug 7, '83". Examination
of the patent records for that date does not reveal a patent that would pertain
to this brace (or any other brace). The patent in question was awarded to
John Fray for the design of the jaws in a tool handle--a patent that was not
applicable to this tool. Apparently Fray felt there was a need to stamp
the brace with a patent date--apparently any valid patent--to help protect the
brace from potential copiers!
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